THE TEN. COMMANDMENTS. 1 Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 2 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image. 3 Thou shalt not take the name . To teach the children that keeping the Ten Commandments helps us be happy. Preparation. 1. Prayerfully study: • Exodus 19—The Lord covenants with the. INTRODUCTION. Obedience. Love. The Preface to the Commandments. The Right Understanding of the Law. 2. THE TEN COMMANDMENTS.
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The 10 Commandments are given in the Old Testament, twice. The original Ten Commandments were written with the “finger of God” on two stone tablets. 07 5 4 3 2 1. R&H Cataloging Service. Wade, Loron. The Ten Commandments: what if we did it God's way? 1. Ten commandments. I. Title. The Ten Commandments. 1. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in .
Generally, post-modern European culture did not view stealing the heritage of slaves as an infringement on the moral law of God. Therefore, European slave-masters stripped African slaves of their religion, culture and linguistic heritage. This kind of robbery was rationalized by leading clerics who condoned the immorality of this robbery with the biblical support of verses such as: Conversely, the clerics of this generation view the kind of slavery practiced then as gross intellectual robbery, and treats it with disdain.
Apologetics have been published in this regard, but it must be generally recognized that the culture of a society is composed of moral values which are acquired by practice and habituation13 which at times render the moral law relative. Generalism in Application of Law Biblical laws are generally binding but have exceptions that make their application relative.
Utilitarians believe in the value of moral laws in guiding individuals to determine which action will probably bring the greatest good to the greatest number of people. The Folio Society, , One cannot dispense with the need for moral laws but if they do not result in the greater good then it is more prudent to break them. The theology that allows the greatest number to suffer ultimately maligns the character of God. This would be achieved at the expense of the lives of hundreds passengers who would die in anyway.
This scenario serves to illustrate breaking the 6th commandment for the good of the greater number. Overarching Love Situationists advocate that: Situationism is an ethic with one absolute to which everything else is relative and which is directed toward a pragmatic end of doing good to persons.
Augsburg Publishing House, , The law then is relative to overarching love which negates an application of the law that violates the principle of love. Love modulates the law, so that when Jesus performed the act of casting out an unclean spirit diamonion akartharton from the possessed man Luke 4: The act was performed on the Sabbath day and invoked the wrath of the legalistic priests who considered it and infringement on the Fourth Commandment.
This therefore implies that adultery can be altruistic, prostitution patriotic, suicide sacrificial, abortion acceptable and murder merciful. The paper briefly outlined four arguments for absolutism: Arguments for relativity support the idea that the law must be applied within the parameters defined by, semantics, culture, generalism, and overarching love.
There are numerous ethical views and issues that have not been discussed, and the scope of Biblical laws is in fact much wider than the Ten Commandments. However this discourse may provide material for meaningful discussion on the laws of the bible and how they are applied in practice. Understanding the Old Testament. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Anderson, Norman. The Folio Society, Black, David Alan. Linguistics and New Testament Interpretation. Broadman Press, Edwards, David L. Honest to God.
Press, Geisler, Norman L. Christian Ethics: Options and Issues. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, Hals, Ronald L. Grace and Faith in the Old Testament. Augsburg Publishing House, Jones, David Clyde. Biblical Christian Ethics. Kaisser, Walter C. Toward Old Testament Ethics. Zondervan Publishing House, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, Streeter B. Adventure, the Faith of Science and the Science of Faith.
We conducted another research to test the vertical position of maxillary central incisors and found that slightly extruded central incisors were more attracted than slightly intruded ones. Results reveal that the vertical position of incisors is when the edge of central incisors is near the lower lip and far from the incisal edge of lateral incisors and canines, thereby ensuring dominance of central incisors.
With a view to aiding clinicians to achieve ideal design of incisal contour in the esthetic zone, the step between central and lateral incisors must range from 1. After discussing this concept, we are able to reassess Figure 4A , in which case the need for maxillary central incisor extrusion to fulfill the 1st commandment is clear Fig 4B. Importantly, the need for individualizing orthodontic bracket bonding should be highlighted. Should height guidance provided by the brackets manufacturer had been used in this clinical case, suggesting that canines should be as high as central incisors, treatment would hardly achieve the ideal smile arc.
It would achieve a plane arc instead. Similarly, should bonding be based on brackets positioned on the center of clinical crowns, the ideal curved smile arc would not be achieved.
Thus, orthodontic bonding should be individualized in the esthetic zone, following patient's lower lip contour and anatomical shape of teeth. Figure 4C shows bracket positioning following this principle and with the major aim of extruding central incisors. In this case, the height of brackets bonded to canines was 3. Thus, after alignment and leveling, maxillary central incisors were ideally positioned in accordance with the aforementioned recommendations, thereby achieving a pleasant and young smile Fig 4D.
Importantly, planning vertical changes of teeth in the esthetic zone requires that three important points be considered: The first regards occlusal maxillary plane and head inclination while assessing patient's smile.
Clockwise maxillary plane and head inclination lead to greater incisor exposure. As a result, convex smile arcs are more easily found. The second point is with regards to mandibular function which must be absolute in dental planning. In other words, esthetic goals must not disrupt occlusal balance. Incisor extrusion or intrusion may influence protrusion and laterality. Therefore, mandibular function must be carefully assessed in which case occlusal adjustments might render necessary.
This feature is a determining factor that allows or not incisors extrusion, thereby increasing smile visibility at rest and while speaking. In the event of proclined incisors decreased interincisal angle , extrusion is hindered or hampered as in cases of Class I bimaxillary protrusion or Class I division I malocclusion. In these cases, incisors angulation must be corrected so as to optimize vertical positioning. To bring this commandment to a conclusion, we carefully reassess Figure 6 which shows that, with a view to ideally adjusting the incisal contour of teeth in the esthetic zone, gingival margin positioning also changes.
In most clinical cases, clinicians face the following: If central incisors incisal edge is below canines incisal edge, what is the final design of gingival margins? Such questioning is answered by the 5th commandment. Should that be the case, this tooth will be used as reference template to change the other central incisor. Should both central incisors be altered, their height is used as reference for correction.
In other words, esthetic central incisors usually have 9.
His right central incisor was 9. His left central incisor, however, was 8. Thus, treatment comprised 0. Subsequently, with a view to fulfilling the 2nd commandment, left central incisor reconstruction was repeated so as to achieve maximum symmetry between central incisors. The demand for symmetry between central incisors is based on the clinical assumption that the nearer the midline, the greater the need for symmetry, and the further from the midline, the higher the number of slight asymmetries clinically acceptable.
On the other hand, slight asymmetries on the side of incisors may go unnoticed, 1 while in canines, even greater asymmetries may not be identified Fig Hence, in cases requiring orthodontic finishing, we suggest that multidisciplinary treatment be conducted to achieve maximum symmetry between maxillary central incisors.
This feature is widely considered in Dentistry and it is based on the golden ratio initially proposed by Levin in Clinically, this feature is easily noticeable in view of conoid or extremely narrow lateral incisors. There are reference rulers and guides used in the clinical practice. They demonstrate that in both smiles, lateral incisors are narrow and do not respect the most esthetically pleasant proportion between anterosuperior teeth.
The case described in Figure 15 shows asymmetrical proportion between anterosuperior teeth. The golden ratio grid makes it easier to clearly identify the discrepancy, revealing that the right lateral incisor had reduced mesiodistal dimension.
Orthodontic treatment opened up a space in the lateral incisor area which would undergo further esthetic restoration so as to fulfill the 3rd commandment which is the proportion between anterosuperior teeth. Furthermore, reshaping was performed to improve symmetry between central incisors and adjust the step between central and lateral incisors, emphasizing the dominance of central incisors in one's smile.
At the same time, it arouses considerable controversy. Nevertheless, one should question the following: Are diastemas in the esthetic zone esthetic or unesthetic? According to the literature, 14 small midline diastemas not greater than 2. This finding may somehow explain why some famous artists have diastemas and find such spaces attractive. On the other hand, this finding 14 might also be questioned, since it is too optimistic in terms of the impact midline diastemas have over smile esthetics.
Although esthetics is highly subjective, the 4th commandment asserts that all midline diastemas must be closed either by orthodontic or multidisciplinary treatment. One should also ask whether diastema in the lateral incisors area mesial, distal or both affects smile esthetics.
With a view to answering this question, we conducted another research to assess the esthetic impact of diastemas over two female patients' smile. The only exception was for 0. Thus, if space is to remain after orthodontic treatment, the distal surface of lateral incisors should be the area of choice. In the former, the remaining space was between central incisors; whereas in the latter, the remaining space was in the distal surface of the left lateral incisor.
In both cases, with a view to fulfilling the 4th commandment, all remaining spaces were closed. The terms "pink esthetics" and "red esthetics" have been used to describe ideal gingival contour at smiling.
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Some dental textbooks bring the following parameter of ideal esthetic gingiva: "Canine gingival margin must coincide with central incisors gingival margin, whereas lateral incisors gingival margin must be slightly below this line" Fig 18A. Indeed, such parameter provides maximum smile esthetics. However, should clinicians follow the aforementioned parameter in cases in which canines and central incisors are equal in length, 2 they might position central incisors incisal edge at the same level or above canines.
As a result, plane or inverted smile arcs might be produced, and so are unesthetic smiles. This clinical doubt arouses from the following: Which esthetic parameter is more important?
Incisal contour white esthetics or gingival design pink esthetics? We have recently published a research in which we establish a relationship between esthetic perception and incisal edge smile line as well as gingival margin smile line.
It is clear that extrusion of central incisors must be conducted according to patient's lower lip contour and sex, respecting the recommendation of greater extrusion of incisors for female smiles.
Furthermore, the degree of extrusion must not violate lateral guidance. Frontal analysis of teeth in the esthetic zone reveals that gingival apexes are located in the center of the crowns or slightly distally.
On the other hand, based on the limits of acceptability of smile asymmetry Fig 11 , changes in gingival apexes hardly affect one's smile negatively. Importantly, even after determining the ideal design of gingival margins in the esthetic zone, the clinician might face gingival asymmetry between teeth. Asymmetry between incisal edges of central incisors are considered unesthetic.
Can it be identified by laypeople? According to the literature, gingival asymmetry not greater than 1. We conducted another research at the Federal University of Bahia UFBA to investigate the esthetic impact of gingival asymmetry between canines 16 and found the same limit of perception 1. These findings highlight once again that white esthetics is more important than pink esthetics Fig Even though a number of studies yields positive results regarding the esthetic impact of asymmetry, 11 , 14 the 5th commandment asserts that after determining ideal gingival design, whether classic or modified, the clinician should focus on correcting potential asymmetries, provided that they are evident at smiling.
Gingival smile displays greater asymmetry and, for this reason, must be corrected. Nevertheless, little gingival display at smiling does not require correction Fig It is worth noting that should discrepancies be visible at smiling and near the midline, the need for correction if even greater.
Cases of gingival discrepancy between central incisors Fig 20 are basically corrected by either one of the following three treatment methods: a gingivoplasty of the lowest incisor; b intrusion and incisal restoration of one central incisor; c extrusion of one central incisor with posterior incisal wear. In this case, it is tooth 11, which requires gingivoplasty a or intrusion b.
Subsequently, treatment planning requires that the cementoenamel junction be identified by means of clinical probing and periapical radiograph or tomography so as to determine whether gingivoplasty is feasible or not.
Figure 21 shows a patient with improved smile esthetics after removal of fixed orthodontic appliances; however, with discrepancy between gingival margins and incisal edges of central incisors. Treatment comprised gingivoplasty of right central incisor and esthetic reconstruction of left central incisor, thereby fulfilling all aforementioned commandments. According to Tjan et al, 23 gingival exposure is determined by the smile line classified as high, medium or low Fig Importantly, the ideal smile does not require gingival tissue exposure to be eliminated.
In fact, many TV stars, models and role models of beauty display the entire length of teeth and little gingival tissue at smiling. As previously mentioned, greater exposure of incisors and little gingival exposure at smiling are esthetic and characteristic of joviality.
The major point of clinical scientific discussion is as follows: Is gingival tissue exposure at smiling esthetic? If so, what is the ideal amount of gingival exposure?
To what extent is gingival exposure acceptable? According to the literature, gingival tissue exposure at smiling is not a negative feature. Based on these findings and considering the different types of smile high, medium and low, as shown in Fig 22 , the 6th commandment suggests that high smile with gingival exposure not greater than 3.
Since the theme of gingival smile has already been widely reviewed, it will not be brought to discussion in this manuscript. For this reason, we recommend further reading on the topic. A very common clinical mistake consists in intruding maxillary incisors so as to minimize gingival exposure in cases of normal smile arc. In these cases, loss of ideal incisal smile contour 1st commandment might be more deleterious than gingival tissue exposure.
Figure 23 shows a smile with great gingival tissue exposure. Orthodontic treatment was performed with extraction of first premolars and, after removing the fixed appliances, the patient was referred to gingivoplasty and manufacture of dental veneers in the esthetic zone. Subsequently, with the aid of dermatological procedures 5 that included the use of botulinum toxin, gingival tissue exposure was minimized, thereby favoring satisfactory esthetic outcomes.
Importantly, despite being a case of gingival smile, the 1st commandment was fulfilled with an ideal smile arc as well as proper design of incisal edges and modified gingival design. Literature does not present a consensus regarding the esthetic impact of buccal corridor over smiling.
While some studies demonstrate that different buccal corridors do not affect smile esthetics, other state the opposite. We conducted another research at the Federal University of Bahia 13 and found intermediate buccal corridors to be more esthetic in comparison to wide and narrow buccal corridors. Following this trend, wider buccal corridors are more unesthetic. Indeed, when this feature is compared to all the aforementioned ones, we come to the conclusion that one's buccal corridor is not as critical to smile esthetics.
In spite of that, the 7th commandment suggests that intermediate buccal corridors are ideal, followed by narrow or nonexistent ones. However, it is hardly noticed by laypeople. According to the literature, midline deviations not greater than mm are not identified by laypeople. While midline deviations are hardly noticed by laypeople, changes in tooth angulation in the esthetic zone alone or in combination are extremely deleterious to one's smile.
According to the literature, 14 minimal changes of 2. For this reason, they must be corrected. Correction of angular discrepancies must be based on classic esthetic literature guidance: The incisal edge line of central incisors must be parallel to the interpupillary line.
Thus, changes in incisor angulation must be investigated from frontal as well as lateral smile view. Figure 26 shows a case with both problems: Midline deviation and changes in tooth angulation in the esthetic zone. One can easily notice that correcting the second is prioritized over the first. Mini-implant was used to correct changes in tooth angulation.
Additionally, once parallelism between the incisal edge line of central incisors and interpupillary line was restored, esthetic benefits were evinced. Although the literature determines a limit of perception of mm for laypeople to identify midline deviation and 2. The 9th commandment basically determines three procedures to aid esthetic refinement: a Dental bleaching; b Adjustment of contacts; c Reshaping of incisal edges in the esthetic zone.
Figure 27A shows a case of orthodontic finishing. This example casts doubt on the following: What is missing in this case? A closed-up view of teeth in the esthetic zone reveals the presence of black triangles and absence of papillae in interproximal spaces Fig 27B.
Papillae must fill interdental spaces up to the contacts.
However, when contacts are inappropriate, interdental spaces might remain. With a view to enhancing incisal edges contour, slight wear was also carried out to minimize incisal embrasures, thus improving esthetics and giving the smile a younger look Figs 27C and The current standard of beauty comprises not only a beautiful smile, but also voluminous lips and greater maxillary incisor exposure at smiling, at rest or while speaking. According to the literature, anteroposterior positioning of teeth plays a key role in determining lip volume.Zondervan Publishing House, The Fifth Commandment shows us from whom and how the fundamentals of respect and honour are most effectively learned.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; Options and Issues Grand Rapids: This can act as a disincentive to the essential process of dialogue and shared decision making, which always needs to take precedence over the achievement of externally imposed targets. Understanding the Old Testament. Do not assume that all is well or that someone else will do it.
The paper briefly outlined four arguments for absolutism:
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