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Chapter 1 Nutrition and You Research Report, no. ERR (March ). longmogedwapor.cf PDF. By soft documents of guide Nutrition & You (4th Edition) By Joan Salge Blake to check out, you might not should bring the thick prints almost everywhere . Like what you see? Get more at longmogedwapor.cf The Science of Nutrition. Second Edition. Janice L. Thompson, Ph.D., FACSM. University of Bristol. University of.


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Exam Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the. “[An] easy-to-follow, masterful guide covering virtually everything you need to know about eating for optimal health. If you have only one food and nutrition book . ALERT: Before you download, check with your instructor or review your course syllabus to ensure that you select the correct ISBN. Several versions of Pearson's .

More information is available on this project's attribution page. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. To download a. Nutrition is an evidence-based science. Nutritional scientists continuously advance our knowledge of nutrition by building on prior research.

Listen to questions and answers to common concerns about food and eating habits. As we get started on our journey into the world of health and nutrition, our first focus will be to demonstrate that nutritional science is an evolving field of study, continually being updated and supported by research, studies, and trials.

Once we establish this, your confidence will be strengthened in nutritional science to help guide your eating habits. Peptic ulcers are painful sores in the gastrointestinal tract and can cause symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite, and weight loss. The cure for this ailment took some time for scientists to figure out. If your grandfather complained to his doctor of symptoms of peptic ulcer, he was probably told to avoid spicy foods, alcohol, and coffee, and to manage his stress.

In the early twentieth century, the medical community thought peptic ulcers were caused by what you ate and drank, and by stress. In , Dr. Bertram W. Sippy advised patients to drink small amounts of cream and milk every hour in order to neutralize stomach acid.

And then, increasingly, introduce soft bland foods with frequent meal times. For a while this diet sometimes worked, fooling both doctors and patients. However, the disappearance of peptic ulcer symptoms was likely the result of having a full stomach all the time, as the symptoms more often occur when the stomach is empty.

Ultimately, the Sippy diet did not cure peptic ulcers and in the latter s scientists discovered the diet was associated with a significant increase in heart disease due to its high saturated fat content. Accessed November 10, They met with significant opposition to their hypothesis but they persisted with their research. Their research led to an understanding that the spiral shape of the bacterium H. Marshall actually drank a dish of H.

A few days later he was vomiting and had inflamed tissue in his stomach. The presence of H. He then took an antibiotic and the symptoms of H. Experimental success? It still took years for the medical community to be entirely convinced of the link between peptic ulcers and H.

In , the National Institutes of Health held a conference on the cause of peptic ulcers. There was scientific consensus that H. In , the Food and Drug Administration FDA approved the first antibiotic that could be used to treat patients with peptic ulcers. Nevertheless, the link between H.

In fact, 75 percent of patients with peptic ulcers in the late s were still being prescribed antacid medications and advised to change their diet and reduce their stress. In , the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , alongside other public health organizations, began an intensive educational campaign to convince the public and health-care providers that peptic ulcers are a curable condition requiring treatment with antibiotics.

Today, if you go to your primary physician you will be given the option of taking an antibiotic to eradicate H. Scientists have progressed even further and mapped the entire genome of H.

The H. The demystification of disease requires the continuous forward march of science, overturning old, traditional theories and discovering new, more effective ways to treat disease and promote health. In , Marshall and Warren were awarded the prestigious Nobel Prize in medicine for their discovery that many stomach ulcers are caused by H. Make a commitment to empower yourself with scientific evidence as a strategy for achieving a healthier diet. A primary goal of this text is to provide you with information backed by nutritional science, and with a variety of resources that use scientific evidence to optimize health and prevent disease.

In this chapter you will see that there are many conditions and deadly diseases that can be prevented by good nutrition. You will also discover the many other determinants of health and disease, how the powerful tool of scientific investigation is used to design dietary guidelines, and recommendations that will promote health and prevent disease. Americans are bombarded with television programs that show where to find the best dinners, pizzas, and cakes, and the restaurants that serve the biggest and juiciest burgers.

Other programs feature chefs battling to prepare meals, and the top places to burst your belly from consuming atomic chicken wings and deli sandwiches longer than a foot. There are also shows that feature bizarre foods from cultures around the world. How do you use the information from popular network food shows to build a nutritious meal? The construction of a nutritious meal requires learning about which foods are healthy and which foods are not, how foods and nutrients function in your body, and how to use scientific resources.

This text is designed to provide you with the information necessary to make sound nutritional choices that will optimize health and help prevent disease. Nutritional science The investigation of how an organism is nourished, and how nourishment affects personal health, population health, and planetary health.

Nutritional science covers a wide spectrum of disciplines.

As a result, nutritional scientists can specialize in particular aspects of nutrition such as biology, physiology, immunology, biochemistry, education, psychology, sustainability, and sociology. Without adequate nutrition the human body does not function optimally, and severe nutritional inadequacy can lead to disease and even death.

The typical American diet is lacking in many ways, from not containing the proper amounts of essential nutrients, to being too speedily consumed, to being only meagerly satisfying. Dietitians are nutrition professionals who integrate their knowledge of nutritional science into helping people achieve a healthy diet and develop good dietary habits. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics AND is the largest organization of nutrition professionals worldwide and dietitians registered with the AND are committed to helping Americans eat well and live healthier lives.

Your ability to wake up, to think clearly, to communicate, to hope, to dream, to go to school, to gain knowledge, to go to work, to earn a living, and to do all of the things that you like to do are dependent upon one factor—your health. Good health means you are able to function normally and work hard to achieve your goals in life.

For the next few minutes, take some time to view snapshots of the insides of the refrigerators of American mechanics, doctors, school teachers, hunters, short-order cooks, college students, vegans, and more. How we care for others. And how we care for the land. These hopes encompass the inspirations for this book. Mark Menjivar has traveled around the United States taking photographs of the contents of refrigerators of numerous types of people.

In , the World Health Organization WHO defined health A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. A triangle is often used to depict the equal influences of physical, mental, and social well-being on health Figure 1.

Disease Any abnormal condition that affects the health of an organism and is characterized by specific signs and symptoms. Signs refer to identifying characteristics of a disease such as swelling, weight loss, or fever. Symptoms can include nausea, fatigue, irritability, and pain. Diseases are broadly categorized as resulting from pathogens i.

Table of Contents

Diseases that primarily affect physical health are those that impair body structure as is the case with osteoporosis , or functioning as is the case with cardiovascular disease. Mental illnesses primarily affect mental and social well-being. The foods we eat affect all three aspects of our health.

For example, a teen with Type 2 diabetes a disease brought on by poor diet is first diagnosed by physical signs and symptoms such as increased urination, thirstiness, and unexplained weight loss. But research has also found that teens with Type 2 diabetes have impaired thinking and do not interact well with others in school, thereby affecting mental and social well-being. Type 2 diabetes is just one example of a physiological disease that affects all aspects of health—physical, mental, and social.

In , the first congressional funds were appropriated to the US Department of Agriculture USDA for the study of the relationship between nutrition and human health. Combs, G. Nutrition at USDA. Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Although wide distribution of dietary guidelines did not come about until the s, many historical events that demonstrated the importance of diet to health preceded their release. Assessments of the American diet in the s led President Franklin D.

Their work and the acknowledgement by President FDR of the nutritional inadequacy of the American diet evoked a united response between scientists and government leading to the enrichment of flour, the development of school lunch programs, and advancements of nutritional education in this country.

Figure 1. In the latter part of the twentieth century nutritional scientists, public health organizations, and the American public increasingly recognized that eating too much of certain foods is linked to chronic diseases.

We now know that diet-related conditions and diseases include hypertension high blood pressure , obesity, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and osteoporosis. These diet-related conditions and diseases are some of the biggest killers of Americans. The HHS reports that unhealthy diets and inactivity cause between , and , deaths every single year.

Center for Science in the Public Interest. A study in the journal Obesity reported that if current trends are not changed, percent of Americans will be overweight or obese in ! Wang Y, et al. The foods we eat contain nutrients Substances required by the body that must be obtained from the diet. Nutrients are substances required by the body to perform its basic functions. Nutrients must be obtained from diet, since the human body does not synthesize them.

Nutrients are used to produce energy, detect and respond to environmental surroundings, move, excrete wastes, respire breathe , grow, and reproduce. There are six classes of nutrients required for the body to function and maintain overall health. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals. Foods also contain nonnutrients that may be harmful such as cholesterol, dyes, and preservatives or beneficial such as antioxidants.

Nonnutrient substances in food will be further explored in Chapter 8 "Nutrients Important As Antioxidants". Nutrients that are needed in large amounts are called macronutrients Nutrients that are needed in large amounts.

Includes carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water. There are three classes of macronutrients: These can be metabolically processed into cellular energy.

Introduction to Nutrition and Metabolism, Fourth Edition

The energy from macronutrients comes from their chemical bonds. This chemical energy is converted into cellular energy that is then utilized to perform work, allowing our bodies to conduct their basic functions.

A unit of measurement of food energy is the calorie. Water is also a macronutrient in the sense that you require a large amount of it, but unlike the other macronutrients it does not yield calories.

Carbohydrates Organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are two basic forms: The major food sources of carbohydrates are grains, milk, fruits, and starchy vegetables like potatoes.

Nonstarchy vegetables also contain carbohydrates, but in lesser quantities. Carbohydrates are broadly classified into two forms based on their chemical structure: Fast-releasing carbohydrates consist of one or two basic units. Examples of simple sugars include sucrose, the type of sugar you would have in a bowl on the breakfast table, and glucose, the type of sugar that circulates in your blood. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protein, and Water.

Slow-releasing carbohydrates are long chains of simple sugars that can be branched or unbranched. During digestion, the body breaks down all slow-releasing carbohydrates to simple sugars, mostly glucose. Glucose is then transported to all our cells where it is stored, used to make energy, or used to build macromolecules. Fiber is also a slow-releasing carbohydrate, but it cannot be broken down in the human body and passes through the digestive tract undigested unless the bacteria that inhabit the gut break it down.

One gram of carbohydrates yields four kilocalories of energy for the cells in the body to perform work. In addition to providing energy and serving as building blocks for bigger macromolecules, carbohydrates are essential for proper functioning of the nervous system, heart, and kidneys.

As mentioned, glucose can be stored in the body for future use. In humans, the storage molecule of carbohydrates is called glycogen and in plants it is known as starches. Glycogen and starches are slow-releasing carbohydrates. Lipids A family of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

They are insoluble in water. The three main types of lipids are triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. Lipids are found predominately in butter, oils, meats, dairy products, nuts, and seeds, and in many processed foods. The three main types of lipids are triglycerides triacylglycerols , phospholipids, and sterols. The main job of lipids is to store energy.

Lipids provide more energy per gram than carbohydrates nine kilocalories per gram of lipids versus four kilocalories per gram of carbohydrates. In addition to energy storage, lipids serve as cell membranes, surround and protect organs, aid in temperature regulation, and regulate many other functions in the body.

Proteins Macromolecules composed of chains of organic monomeric subunits, called amino acids. Amino acids are simple monomers composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

Amino acids are simple subunits composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The food sources of proteins are meats, dairy products, seafood, and a variety of different plant-based foods, most notably soy.

Proteins provide structure to bones, muscles and skin, and play a role in conducting most of the chemical reactions that take place in the body. Scientists estimate that greater than one-hundred thousand different proteins exist within the human body. There is one other nutrient that we must have in large quantities: Water does not contain carbon, but is composed of two hydrogens and one oxygen per molecule of water. More than 60 percent of your total body weight is water.

Without it, nothing could be transported in or out of the body, chemical reactions would not occur, organs would not be cushioned, and body temperature would fluctuate widely.

On average, an adult consumes just over two liters of water per day from food and drink. Micronutrients Nutrients needed in smaller amounts. Includes vitamins and minerals. Micronutrients include all the essential minerals and vitamins.

There are sixteen essential minerals and thirteen vitamins See Table 1. In contrast to carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, micronutrients are not directly used for making energy, but they assist in the process as being part of enzymes i.

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body and are involved in all aspects of body functions from producing energy, to digesting nutrients, to building macromolecules. Micronutrients play many roles in the body.

Minerals are solid inorganic substances that form crystals and are classified depending on how much of them we need. Trace minerals, such as molybdenum, selenium, zinc, iron, and iodine, are only required in a few milligrams or less and macrominerals, such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and phosphorus, are required in hundreds of milligrams. Many minerals are critical for enzyme function, others are used to maintain fluid balance, build bone tissue, synthesize hormones, transmit nerve impulses, contract and relax muscles, and protect against harmful free radicals.

The thirteen vitamins are categorized as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. The water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C and all the B vitamins, which include thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyroxidine, biotin, folate and cobalamin. The fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K. Vitamins are required to perform many functions in the body such as making red blood cells, synthesizing bone tissue, and playing a role in normal vision, nervous system function, and immune system function.

Vitamin deficiencies can cause severe health problems. For example, a deficiency in niacin causes a disease called pellagra, which was common in the early twentieth century in some parts of America. Other vitamins were also found to prevent certain disorders and diseases such as scurvy vitamin C , night blindness vitamin A , and rickets vitamin D.

This video provides a brief history of Dr. One measurement of food quality is the amount of nutrients it contains relative to the amount of energy it provides. High-quality foods are nutrient dense, meaning they contain lots of the nutrients relative to the amount of calories they provide. Food quality is additionally associated with its taste, texture, appearance, microbial content, and how much consumers like it.

It is better to get all your micronutrients from the foods you eat as opposed to from supplements. Supplements contain only what is listed on the label, but foods contain many more macronutrients, micronutrients, and other chemicals, like antioxidants that benefit health.

To our surprise, we found that multivitamins did not lower the risk of the most common cancers and also had no impact on heart disease. Center News 16 February What are some of the nutrients found in your favorite foods?

Similar to the method by which a police detective finally charges a criminal with a crime, nutritional scientists discover the health effects of food and its nutrients by first making an observation. Once observations are made, they come up with a hypothesis, test their hypothesis, and then interpret the results. After this, they gather additional evidence from multiple sources and finally come up with a conclusion on whether the food suspect fits the claim.

This organized process of inquiry used in forensic science, nutritional science, and every other science is called the scientific method The process of inquiry that involves making an observation, coming up with a hypothesis, conducting a test of that hypothesis, evaluating results, gathering more supporting evidence, and coming up with a conclusion.

Below is an illustration of the scientific method at work—in this case to prove that iodine is a nutrient. Zimmerman, M. To carry out this isolation he burned some seaweed and in the process observed an intense violet vapor that crystallized when he exposed it to a cold surface.

He sent the violet crystals to an expert on gases, Joseph Gay-Lussac, who identified the crystal as a new element. It was named iodine, the Greek word for violet. The following scientific record is some of what took place in order to conclude that iodine is a nutrient. Eating seaweed is a cure for goiter, a gross enlargement of the thyroid gland in the neck.

In , Swiss physician Jean-Francois Coindet hypothesized that the seaweed contained iodine and he could use just iodine instead of seaweed to treat his patients. Experimental test. Coindet administered iodine tincture orally to his patients with goiter. Interpret results. Gathering more evidence. Many other physicians contributed to the research on iodine deficiency and goiter. French chemist Chatin proposed that the low iodine content in food and water of certain areas far away from the ocean were the primary cause of goiter and renounced the theory that goiter was the result of poor hygiene.

The program was effective and 80 percent of goitrous children were cured. In , Swiss doctor Bayard proposed iodizing salt as a good way to treat areas endemic with goiter. Iodized salt was transported by mules to a small village at the base of the Matterhorn where more than 75 percent of school children were goitrous. It was given to families to use for six months. The iodized salt was beneficial in treating goiter in this remote population. Physician David Marine conducted the first experiment of treating goiter with iodized salt in America in Akron, Ohio.

This study conducted on over four-thousand school children found that iodized salt prevented goiter. In , US public health officials initiated the program of iodizing salt and started eliminating the scourge of goiterism.

Today more than 70 percent of American households use iodized salt and many other countries have followed the same public health strategy to reduce the health consequences of iodine deficiency. Although a lengthy process, the scientific method is a productive way to define essential nutrients and determine their ability to promote health and prevent disease.

The scientific method is part of the overall evidence-based approach to designing nutritional guidelines. An evidence-based approach to nutrition includes: Briss, P.

The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization, constructs its nutrient recommendations i. The entire procedure for setting the DRI is documented and made available to the public. The USDA and HHS websites are great tools for discovering ways to optimize health; however, it is important to gather nutrition information from multiple resources as there are often differences in opinion among various scientists and public health organizations.

Progress, Not Perfection. For a list of reliable sources that advocate good nutrition to promote health and prevent disease using evidence-based science see Table 1. In Chapter 2 "Achieving a Healthy Diet" , we will further discuss distinguishing criteria that will enable you to wade through misleading nutrition information and instead gather your information from reputable, credible websites and organizations.

There are many types of scientific studies that can be used to provide supporting evidence for a particular hypothesis. The various types of studies include epidemiological studies, interventional clinical trials, and randomized clinical interventional trials.

Epidemiological studies Scientific investigations that define frequency, distribution, and patterns of health events in a population. The CDC defines epidemiological studies as scientific investigations that define frequency, distribution, and patterns of health events in a population. Thus, these studies describe the occurrence and patterns of health events over time. The goal of an epidemiological study is to find factors associated with an increased risk for a health event, though these sometimes remain elusive.

This study first examined the physical health and lifestyles of 5, men and women from the city of Framingham, Massachusetts and has now incorporated data from the children and grandchildren of the original participants. One of the seminal findings of this ambitious study was that higher cholesterol levels in the blood are a risk factor for heart disease.

Some shortcomings of epidemiological studies are that investigators cannot control environments and lifestyles, a specific group of people studied may not be an accurate depiction of an entire population, and these types of scientific studies cannot directly determine if one variable causes another. Interventional clinical trial studies Scientific investigations in which a variable is changed between groups of people. When well done, this type of study allows one to determine causal relationships.

Appel, L. The groups remained on the diets for eight weeks. Blood pressures were measured before starting the diets and after eight weeks. Results of the study showed that the group on the combination diet had significantly lower blood pressure at the end of eight weeks than those who consumed the control diet.

The authors concluded that the combination diet is an effective nutritional approach to treat high blood pressure. The attributes of high-quality clinical interventional trial studies are:. What are confounding variables? These are factors other than the one being tested that could influence the results of the study. For instance, in the study we just considered, if one group of adults did less physical activity than the other, then it could be the amount of physical activity rather than the diet being tested that caused the differences in blood pressures among the groups.

The limitations of these types of scientific studies are that they are difficult to carry on for long periods of time, are costly, and require that participants remain compliant with the intervention.

Furthermore, it is unethical to study certain interventions. An example of an unethical intervention would be to advise one group of pregnant mothers to drink alcohol to determine the effects of alcohol intake on pregnancy outcome, because we know that alcohol consumption during pregnancy damages the developing fetus. Randomized clinical interventional trial studies Scientific investigations which incorporate a change in the variable being tested between groups of people and are therefore capable of determining a causal relationship.

A randomized clinical interventional trial is a study in which participants are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments. Neither the researchers nor the participants can choose which group a participant is assigned. However, from their limitations it is clear that epidemiological studies complement interventional clinical trial studies and both are necessary to construct strong foundations of scientific evidence for health promotion and disease prevention.

Other scientific studies used to provide supporting evidence for a hypothesis include laboratory studies conducted on animals or cells. An advantage of this type of study is that they typically do not cost as much as human studies and they require less time to conduct.

Other advantages are that researchers have more control over the environment and the amount of confounding variables can be significantly reduced.

Moreover, animal and cell studies provide a way to study relationships at the molecular level and are also helpful in determining the exact mechanism by which a specific nutrient causes a change in health. The disadvantage of these types of studies are that researchers are not working with whole humans and thus the results may not be relevant. Nevertheless, well-conducted animal and cell studies that can be repeated by multiple researchers and obtain the same conclusion are definitely helpful in building the evidence to support a scientific hypothesis.

Science is always moving forward, albeit sometimes slowly. One study is not enough to make a guideline or a recommendation or cure a disease. Science is a stepwise process that builds on past evidence and finally culminates into a well-accepted conclusion. Unfortunately, not all scientific conclusions are developed in the interest of human health and it is important to know where a scientific study was conducted and who provided the money.

Indeed, just as an air quality study paid for by a tobacco company diminishes its value in the minds of readers, so does one on red meat performed at a laboratory funded by a national beef association. To see scientists debating over the nutritional guidelines, watch Note 1. Contentious science is actually a good thing as it forces researchers to be of high integrity, well-educated, well-trained, and dedicated. It also instigates public health policy makers to seek out multiple sources of evidence in order to support a new policy.

Agreement involving many experts across multiple scientific disciplines is necessary for recommending dietary changes to improve health and prevent disease. Although a somewhat slow process, it is better for our health to allow the evidence to accumulate before incorporating some change in our diet. This webcast from March 29, demonstrates how science is always evolving and how debate among nutrition science experts influences policy decisions.

One of the newest areas in the realm of nutritional science is the scientific discipline of nutritional genetics, also called nutrigenomics. Genes are part of DNA and contain the genetic information that make up all our traits.

While we know that health is defined as more than just the absence of disease, there are currently very few accurate genetic markers of good health. Rather, there are many more genetic markers for disease. Thus, your DNA will determine your optimal diet. A dietitian describes the new scientific discipline of nutrigenomics and its potential impact on diet and health. As science evolves, so does technology. Both can be used to create a healthy diet, optimize health, and prevent disease.

Picture yourself not too far into the future: What else is not far off? How about another app that provides a shopping list that adheres to all dietary guidelines and is emailed to the central server at your local grocer who then delivers the food to your home? The food is then stored in your smart fridge which documents your daily diet at home and delivers your weekly dietary assessment to your home computer.

At your computer, you can compare your diet with other diets aimed at weight loss, optimal strength training, reduction in risk for specific diseases or any other health goals you may have. You may also delve into the field of nutritional genetics and download your gene expression profiles to a database that analyzes yours against millions of others. In addition to nutrition, health is affected by genetics, the environment, life cycle, and lifestyle. For example, family income influences the food choices available and the quantity and quality of food that can be downloadd, which of course affects nutrition.

Except for nutrition and lifestyle, these factors can be difficult or impossible to change. Everyone starts out in life with the genes handed down to them from the families of their mother and father.

Genes The sequences of DNA that code for all the proteins in your body. The expression of different genes can determine the color of your hair, skin, and eyes, and even if you are more likely to be fat or thin and if you have an increased risk for a certain disease.

The sequence of DNA that makes up your genes determines your genetic makeup, also called your genome Entire genetic information contained in an individual which is inherited from their parents. It consists of about three billion individual units and contains between twenty-five and thirty thousand genes. The human genome that was sequenced was taken from a small population of donors and is used as a reference DNA sequence for the entire population.

Each of us has a similar but unique DNA sequence. Only identical twins and cloned animals have the exact same DNA sequence. Identical twins are the only individuals in the world that have identical DNA, sharing the same genotype. However, their phenotype is different, meaning that their identical DNA is expressed differently. Recall that nutrigenomics An emerging scientific discipline that studies how nutrients affect gene expression.

Epigenetics A rapidly advancing scientific field, in which researchers study how non-gene factors affect gene expression. Some of these factors are now known to be nutrients. Researchers at the Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah conducted an experiment in which some pregnant mice were fed a diet containing folate, choline, vitamin B 12 , and betaine, and other pregnant mice were fed a diet that did not contain these nutrients and chemicals.

Both groups of pregnant mice were also fed bisphenol A, a chemical in plastic, which alters DNA by inhibiting a specific chemical reaction. The mice born from the mother fed the supplemented diet were brown, thin, and healthy. The mice born from the mother fed the unsupplemented diet were yellow, fat, and unhealthy. This is a dramatic example of how nutrients change not the sequence of DNA, but which genes are expressed.

These two mice look different, but have identical DNA sequences. Thus, not only do the things you eat determine your health, but so do the things your mother ate during pregnancy. Moreover, other studies have demonstrated what your dad ate—and what your grandmother ate while she was pregnant with your mother!

Does this make it OK for you to blame your mother and father for all of your shortcomings? Genetics are important in determining your health, but they are certainly not the only determinant. This is a good animation of the central foundation of modern biology.

Spin the dial all the way to the left to turn off the expression, and then slowly move it to the right. Watch as Jen discovers how what you eat during pregnancy affects the health of your baby. The life cycle The stages of life one passes through until death. A baby develops into a child, transitions through the wonderful phase of adolescence, becomes an adult, and then advances into old age and eventually death Figure 1.

The current average life expectancy in America is approaching eighty. To see how this compares with other countries, see Note 1. Visit this public database from the World Bank to learn how the life expectancy in America differs from those in other countries. For example, when you are an adolescent, your bones grow quickly.

More calcium, a bone-building nutrient, is required in the diet during this life stage than at other ages. As you get older, the aging process affects how your body functions. One effect of aging, apparently earlier in women than in men, is the deterioration of bone tissue. As a result, women over age fifty-one need more calcium in their diet than younger adult women.

Another life-cycle stage, pregnancy, requires several adjustments to nutrition compared to nonpregnant women. It is recommended that a pregnant woman consume more protein than a nonpregnant woman to support growth and development, and to consume more of some vitamins, such as folate, to prevent certain birth defects.

The USDA provides information on healthy diets for many different stages of the life cycle on their website. What else is known to help a person age slowly and gracefully? Diets high in vegetables and fruits are associated with increased longevity and a decreased risk of many diseases. The interplay of genetics and environment can determine the consequences of disease. Your environment has a large influence on your health, genetics, life cycle, and lifestyle. Scientists say that the majority of your expressed traits are a product of your genes and environment, of which nutrition is a component.

An example of this interaction can be observed in people who have the rare genetic disorder, phenylketonuria PKU. The clinical signs of PKU are mental retardation, brain damage, and seizures and are caused by the build-up of the amino acid phenylalanine and its metabolites breakdown products produced during metabolism in the body.

The high level of phenylalanine in a person who has PKU is the result of a change in the gene that encodes for an enzyme that converts phenylalanine into the amino acid tyrosine.

This genetic change, called a mutation, causes the enzyme to not function properly. In this country and many others all newborn babies are screened for PKU in order to diagnose and treat the disease before the development of mental retardation and brain damage. Once diagnosed, PKU is treated by strict adherence to a diet low in phenylalanine, consisting mostly of fruits, vegetables, and grains. Adhering to this diet for life allows an individual with PKU to lead a normal life without suffering the consequences of brain damage, mental retardation, or seizures.

In the example of PKU, the consequences of a genetic mutation are modified by diet. Socioeconomic status A measurement dependent on three variables; income, occupation, and education. Socioeconomic status affects nutrition by influencing what foods you can afford and consequently, food choice and food quality. Nutrition and health are generally better in populations that have higher incomes, better jobs, and more education.

On the other hand, the burden of disease is highest in the most disadvantaged populations. A commentary in the Journal of the American Medical Association reports that the lower life expectancy of populations of lower socioeconomic status is largely attributable to increased death from heart disease. Fiscella, K. The American Heart Association states that having a healthy diet is one of the best weapons to fight heart disease and it is therefore essential that all socioeconomic status groups have access to high-quality, nutrient-dense foods.

The disparities in nutrition and health in America are directly related to the disparity in socioeconomic status. Other dimensions that affect health disparity are race, ethnic group, sex, sexual identity, age, disability, and geographic location. This will be further discussed in Chapter 2 "Achieving a Healthy Diet".

To see the differences in causes of death for different sexes, races, and age groups, visit the website of Healthy People and compare the top ten causes of death for different populations. One facet of lifestyle is your dietary habits.

Recall that we discussed briefly how nutrition affects health. A greater discussion of this will follow in subsequent chapters in this book as there is an enormous amount of information regarding this aspect of lifestyle.

Dietary habits include what a person eats, how much a person eats during a meal, how frequently meals are consumed, and how often a person eats out at restaurants. Scientists have progressed even further and mapped the entire genome of H. The H. The demystification of disease requires the continuous forward march of science, overturning old, traditional theories and discovering new, more effective ways to treat disease and promote health.

In , Marshall and Warren were awarded the prestigious Nobel Prize in medicine for their discovery that many stomach ulcers are caused by H.

You Decide Make a commitment to empower yourself with scientific evidence as a strategy for achieving a healthier diet. A primary goal of this text is to provide you with information backed by nutritional science, and with a variety of resources that use scientific evidence to optimize health and prevent disease.

In this chapter you will see that there are many conditions and deadly diseases that can be prevented by good nutrition. You will also discover the many other determinants of health and disease, how the powerful tool of scientific investigation is used to design dietary guidelines, and recommendations that will promote health and prevent disease.

Your View of Food Americans are bombarded with television programs that show where to find the best dinners, pizzas, and cakes, and the restaurants that serve the biggest and juiciest burgers. Other programs feature chefs battling to prepare meals, and the top places to burst your belly from consuming atomic chicken wings and deli sandwiches longer than a foot. There are also shows that feature bizarre foods from cultures around the world.

How do you use the information from popular network food shows to build a nutritious meal? The construction of a nutritious meal requires learning about which foods are healthy and which foods are not, how foods and nutrients function in your body, and how to use scientific resources. This text is designed to provide you with the information necessary to make sound nutritional choices that will optimize health and help prevent disease.

How do you fill your plate? Nutritional science The investigation of how an organism is nourished, and how nourishment affects personal health, population health, and planetary health. Nutritional science covers a wide spectrum of disciplines. As a result, nutritional scientists can specialize in particular aspects of nutrition such as biology, physiology, immunology, biochemistry, education, psychology, sustainability, and sociology.

Without adequate nutrition the human body does not function optimally, and severe nutritional inadequacy can lead to disease and even death. The typical American diet is lacking in many ways, from not containing the proper amounts of essential nutrients, to being too speedily consumed, to being only meagerly satisfying. Dietitians are nutrition professionals who integrate their knowledge of nutritional science into helping people achieve a healthy diet and develop good dietary habits.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics AND is the largest organization of nutrition professionals worldwide and dietitians registered with the AND are committed to helping Americans eat well and live healthier lives.

Your ability to wake up, to think clearly, to communicate, to hope, to dream, to go to school, to gain knowledge, to go to work, to earn a living, and to do all of the things that you like to do are dependent upon one factor—your health. Good health means you are able to function normally and work hard to achieve your goals in life. For the next few minutes, take some time to view snapshots of the insides of the refrigerators of American mechanics, doctors, school teachers, hunters, short-order cooks, college students, vegans, and more.

How we care for others. And how we care for the land. These hopes encompass the inspirations for this book. Interactive 1. A triangle is often used to depict the equal influences of physical, mental, and social well-being on health Figure 1.

Disease Any abnormal condition that affects the health of an organism and is characterized by specific signs and symptoms. Signs refer to identifying characteristics of a disease such as swelling, weight loss, or fever. Symptoms can include nausea, fatigue, irritability, and pain. Diseases are broadly categorized as resulting from pathogens i.

Diseases that primarily affect physical health are those that impair body structure as is the case with osteoporosis , or functioning as is the case with cardiovascular disease. Mental illnesses primarily affect mental and social well-being.

Figure 1. For example, a teen with Type 2 diabetes a disease brought on by poor diet is first diagnosed by physical signs and symptoms such as increased urination, thirstiness, and unexplained weight loss. But research has also found that teens with Type 2 diabetes have impaired thinking and do not interact well with others in school, thereby affecting mental and social well-being.

Type 2 diabetes is just one example of a physiological disease that affects all aspects of health—physical, mental, and social. Combs, G. Although wide distribution of dietary guidelines did not come about until the s, many historical events that demonstrated the importance of diet to health preceded their release.

Assessments of the American diet in the s led President Franklin D. Their work and the acknowledgement by President FDR of the nutritional inadequacy of the American diet evoked a united response between scientists and government leading to the enrichment of flour, the development of school lunch programs, and advancements of nutritional education in this country.

We now know that diet-related conditions and diseases include hypertension high blood pressure , obesity, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and osteoporosis. These diet-related conditions and diseases are some of the biggest killers of Americans.

Nutrition & You, 5th Edition

The HHS reports that unhealthy diets and inactivity cause between , and , deaths every single year. Center for Science in the Public Interest. A study in the journal Obesity reported that if current trends are not changed, percent of Americans will be overweight or obese in ! Wang Y, et al. Disease is defined as any abnormal condition that affects the health of an organism, and is characterized by specific signs and symptoms. Disease affects all three aspects of the health triangle.

Good nutrition provides a mechanism to promote health and prevent disease. Diet-related conditions and diseases include obesity, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and osteoporosis. It took until the s for the US federal government to develop a diet-related public policy designed to equip Americans with the tools to change to a healthier diet.

Discussion Starters How might the way we nourish our bodies affect planetary health? Debate your classmates: Should the federal government be concerned with what Americans eat? List the three energy-yielding nutrients and their energy contribution. The foods we eat contain nutrients Substances required by the body that must be obtained from the diet.. Nutrients are substances required by the body to perform its basic functions. Nutrients must be obtained from diet, since the human body does not synthesize them.

Nutrients are used to produce energy, detect and respond to environmental surroundings, move, excrete wastes, respire breathe , grow, and reproduce. There are six classes of nutrients required for the body to function and maintain overall health. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals.

Foods also contain nonnutrients that may be harmful such as cholesterol, dyes, and preservatives or beneficial such as antioxidants. Nonnutrient substances in food will be further explored in Chapter 8 "Nutrients Important As Antioxidants". Macronutrients Nutrients that are needed in large amounts are called macronutrients Nutrients that are needed in large amounts.

Includes carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water.. There are three classes of macronutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These can be metabolically processed into cellular energy.

The energy from macronutrients comes from their chemical bonds. This chemical energy is converted into cellular energy that is then utilized to perform work, allowing our bodies to conduct their basic functions. A unit of measurement of food energy is the calorie.Minerals Minerals are solid inorganic substances that form crystals and are classified depending on how much of them we need.

And then, increasingly, introduce soft bland foods with frequent meal times. The food is then stored in your smart fridge which documents your daily diet at home and delivers your weekly dietary assessment to your home computer.

Once we establish this, your confidence will be strengthened in nutritional science to help guide your eating habits. Lipids Lipids A family of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

MERILYN from Lansing
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