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Ancient India R S Sharma Pdf · Download Old NCERT · Click Here To Download. Ancient India R S Sharma Pdf Download Old NCERT. NCERT, Book, History. Ancient India R S Sharma Pdf Download Old NCERT NCERT, Book, History,. WhatsApp. Print Friendly Version of this page Print Get a PDF. The NCERT had entrusted the lesponsibility of preparing courses and textbooks in This volume covers the syllabus in ancient Indian history for the Higher.
In the place of a dynastic political history, which occupied the centre stage of earlier textbooks, they tried to locate historical development as a part of the social process. Despite their academic quality, these textbooks attracted the ire of the Hindu fundamentalist forces. They alleged factual inaccuracy and biased interpretation. The Aryan migration, for example, to India and their beef-eating habits were 1 The NCERT was created by the Government of India as an apex Institute in the area of School Education, which was entrusted with the task of designing the national curriculum and syllabuses for all the school stages, and of preparing model textbooks.
The different States could adopt, adapt or partially follow the National Curriculum that the NCERT had proposed, though they were not obliged to do so. Therefore, in , when they became partners in the government, an attempt was made to withdraw these books, which had to be eventually abandoned due to the protest of the academia and the opposition of liberal sections within the government.
However, the intention of the fundamentalist forces was clearly revealed. Within twenty years of initial attempts, this possibility became a reality. During this period, the political climate in the country turned in favour of the Hindu fundamentalist forces, which enabled them in to lead a coalition government in which the Ministry of Human Resource Development, which dealt with education, was headed by a long standing cadre of the Hindu fundamentalist organization.
As a follow-up of the new National Curriculum, syllabuses for the entire school stage were revised by the NCERT and new textbooks were prepared. The revision of the syllabuses and the new textbooks created a huge controversy all over the country.
In the year , the NDA government fell.
The short advisory note was meant to give some suggestions on how one could avoid the inaccuracies and use the earlier NCERT books for reference. Some of the old books were reprinted and some were provided free of cost to every school affiliated to the CBSE.
It traces these two themes in the textbooks which were used during different government tenures. The rewriting of history is intended to bring about a new bonding by privileging the identity and origins of the majority community, and by the same token, indicating that religious minorities are foreign.
This work explores these issues extensively through to two examples. As far as Ancient Indian history is concerned, a well grounded understanding of Indian civilization has been tampered with, which are related to the caste system in Ancient India, beef-eating practices, evaluation of epics and several other debates; For example, the historical primacy of a distinctive Aryan people is maintained.
This 2 Page is unacceptable, because Aryan is a linguistic label, referring to the Indo-European speaking people, and is not the name of a single people or a race. Although our perceptions of what makes us Indian are different none of us would deny our Indian-ness. In this context, it is important to discuss that how the Aryans are portrayed as the indigenous people of India, again reinforces the Hindutva myth that all, barring the Hindus, are foreigners.
Textbooks in India reflect this uncertainty and scholars continue to differ on the subject.
The ancestry of the Hindus is linked to a genealogy descending from the Aryans. Aryan culture is projected as the oldest and is assessed as superior to all others. This argument draws on nineteenth century ideas about the superiority of Aryan culture and its genesis from a single, unadulterated source — the Vedic corpus.
The date given by most scholars for the earliest section of the Vedic corpus — the Rigveda — is around B. But in order to maintain that it is the oldest culture, the authorship of the earliest urban civilization in India that of the Indus, generally regarded as pre-Aryan and dating to the third millennium B.
Attempts are being made to change the label for the Indus civilization to Saraswati civilization, thus evoking the Rigveda and Hindu connections. It is further held that the Aryans were indigenous to India. This strengthens their role as the founders of Indian civilization and ancestors of the Hindus. Aryanism and Vedic culture are projected as the foundational culture of Indians.
The obsession with pushing back the chronology of Indian cultural traits and with denying the elements of change in them3 has taken the form of a frenzied hunt for antiquity.
Jha suggests that there is a stubborn determination by the 3 For detailed comments on the views of Lal and his followers, see Sudeshna Guha, op.
In keeping with his indigenist approach, B. More recently he has made a tongue-in-cheek endorsement of the view that the Harappan script was the precursor of the later Brahmi in The Saraswati Flows On, Delhi, , , though not long ago he was of the view that the Harappan script was read from right to left. The then government attempted to curtail knowledge rather than to advance it. Passages in the old textbook by Prof. Sharma, Ancient India for Class XI that were unacceptable to the right-wing ideology were deleted from history textbooks.
Any thought of advancing knowledge was terminated by disallowing discussion of these passages in class.
(Download) Old NCERT PDF : Ancient India by R. S. Sharma
This was done not at the instance of historians but on the demand of organisations that were sympathetic to the NDA government.
History textbooks provided a platform for forging political alliances between like minded organisations. The textbooks brought out by the NDA government showed no evidence of being based on the historical method. If we are not going to repeat the same arguments again and again, and wonder what every change of government is likely to mean to the future of knowledge and education, then perhaps we need to understand the processes involved in the advance of knowledge, particularly in systems where government policy regulates the production of knowledge.
This would mean underlining the transparency of institutions concerned with education at various levels and protecting them from the intervention of those unacquainted with the processes of advancing knowledge. In the search of temporal depth, Indian civilization is presented as static, its essence formed from the beginning of time. It is as if the ancients defined for all times, the cultural principles of Indian civilization. Some of the examples are as follows - 1.
The caste system is represented as being in existence since time immemorial when it actually developed in later Vedic times. The evidence of pastoralism in Rigvedic society is entirely eliminated. The economic life of the Vedic people centred around agriculture, arts and crafts and trade and commerce.
Amongst the animals, the cow was given the greatest importance. Aspects of political ideas and institutions in India existed since Rigvedic times when it actually was an egalitarian society.
To claim civilizational status to Aryans, the evidence of pastoral past is erased. The deletions that were undertaken in early can serve as the starting point for analyzing the whole exercise. They give an idea of what the then ruling establishment found injurious in the old textbooks and help us to see what it finds most positive in the new ones. In the textbooks on Ancient Indian History, the deletions included - 1.
A critical evaluation of the Puranic and the Epic traditions in the light of archaeological and epigraphic testimony, with reference to the antiquity of Ayodhya and the origin of Krishna worship in Mathura; 3. The exposition of Brahmanical hostility towards Asoka despite his policy of religious tolerance; 4. The exploitative and ideological aspects of the caste system; and 5. The entire early life of Vardhamana Mahavira.
Lal , is dated B. How then could India have had a "civilization" from B.
The question arises as to from where did this mature phase come from? Was it dropped from the air? And ifithas, will it not be counted as a part ofthe civilisational history?
Will the childhood of a person not be counted in his total age? Does he hold the view that Harappan Civilisation is different from others who have devoted their life to the problem. I am not talking about those who have not even seen a single Harappan site but still have been writing books and giving comments and opinions.
The para reads as follows: ''You may be surprised to know that Indian and Chinese Civilisations are the only ones which have survived right from the time they came into existence till date. The portion in bold face is the one that has been left out from the quotation by Habib. It can be seen that the logic, evidence and the base ofthe arguments rests there. By not quoting that portion Irfan Habib has not only distorted the statement but has also changed its entire meaning.
Is this whatiscalledthe"scientificwayofwritinghistOly"and"scientificwayofquotingi presenting other's views or other's writings''? The issue that needed Prof.
India's Ancient Past By R.S .Sharma Pdf Download
Habib's attention was which other civilisations "have retained many of their basic and distinguishing characteristic features which link them with the past", i. Greeks and Iranians have no links with their earliest civilisations in terms ofreligion, philosophy and society. Are the religion, social customs etc. Kane in this context. Kane writes History of Dharmasastrq, Vol. PartII, pp. Habib may also like to have a look at Dr.
Radhakrishanan's 'Religion and SoCiety ' It developed around years ago [ B. Makkhan Lal's dateis wrong by a mere 23, yearsl" Author's Reply: Prof. Irfan Habib's understanding ofthe development and evolution of civilisations is so poor that one finds it difficult to have a dialogue with him. By B.
Two distinct political regions gradually emerged: Lower Egypt, in the delta, and the Upper Egypt, along the river's green corridor. Around S. The very same Oxford whose Ph. Habib is never tired ofHauIitingl. The book notes p. Fallacies in the IRe Report 10 times, from about B. Let us carne back to the comments of Habib: "Egyptian Civilisation developed no earlier than c.
Makkhan Lal 's date is wrong by a mere 23, years! What kind of simple mathematics is it? Does Prof. Habib has his own mathematics and system ofcalculations?The bottom line is that different perspectives must be mentioned otherwise you are likely to get a biased presentation of history. Sometime after it was used in making transport vehicles like bullock carts and chariots. Page 6 p. Both his Ph. The reason can be best expl!
It was used also to spin cotton and wool and weave cloth. Kosambi , ed.
Ingalls, Sr. Prof Habib's anxiety to deny any credit to India and put everything in the basket ofChina is too familiar.